Alcohol consumption has got its direct impact in reproductive capacity of males. Though alcohol enhances the mood, it affects sperm quality and sperm movement in long run.
The male reproductive system consists of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the testes. Alcohol can interfere with the function of each of these components, thereby causing impotence, infertility, and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. In the testes, alcohol can adversely affect the Leydig cells, which produce and secrete the hormone testosterone. Studies found that heavy alcohol consumption results in reduced testosterone levels in the blood. Alcohol also impairs the function of the testicular Sertoli cells that play an important role in sperm maturation. In the pituitary gland, alcohol can decrease the production, release, and/or activity of two hormones with critical reproductive functions, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Finally, alcohol can interfere with hormone production in the hypothalamus.
Numerous studies have indicated that alcohol abuse in men can cause impaired testosterone production and shrinkage of the testes (i.e., testicular atrophy). Those changes can result in impotence, infertility, and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., reduced facial and chest hair, breast enlargement, and a shift in fat deposition from the abdomen to the hip area).
But recent studies indicate that moderate drinking is good for better performance. A point against alcohol consumption in general comes from a 2014 study that found that men who consumed at least five drinks a week had fewer sperm and lower testosterone levels. On the other hand, a study presented at a scientific conference in 2014 found that men who are moderate drinkers had better erections than teetotallers.