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Why bedwetting occurs in childhood

Bedwetting or sleep wetting or nocturnal enuresis is defined as unintentional urination during sleep occurring after the age when bladder control is usually established. Bed wetting can be of two different types; primary and secondary.
In primary variety of bedwetting the affected child is yet to stay dry for a prolonged of time
secondary variety of bed wetting the affected child or sometimes an adult start to wet bed unintentionally after staying dry for a considerable period of time.
According to the psychiatrists bedwetting is defined as repeated episodes of urination in the bed for at least two occasions in a week over a period of consecutive 3 months and also these episodes are not associated with any drug use or due to any underlying medical conditions.
It is the most common urological complaint during childhood. In most of the cases bed wetting occurs just because of delay in development rather due to an emotional or physical problem. There are only small numbers of cases about 5 to 10 cases out of 100 cases which occur due to any actual underlying physical illness. In many children with problem of bedwetting there are family histories of bed wetting.
It is estimated that most of the girl children remain dry at night by the age of 6 years whereas in cases of boys the age is 7 years and the by 10 years of age about 95% of the children remain dry in the night.
In adults the incidence of bedwetting is about 0.5% to 2.3%.

1. Persistent bedwetting even after 6 to 7 years of age
2. Bedwetting is associated with certain characteristic features like pain during urination, passage of pink urine, unusual degree of thirst and snoring (due to obstructive sleep apnea)
3. Starting of bedwetting after a period of remaining dry

As such there are no physical complications associated with bedwetting rather it may have negative mental impacts. These are
1. Poor social esteem:
             a. How bedwetting can limit social activities like sleepovers or camping
             b. Attitude of the care giver. Anger, rejection and punishment might cause stress in the child
             c. Duration of bedwetting
             d. Treatment failures
             e. Extent of social isolation by other persons (peers)
2. Behavioral problems: there are chances that bedwetting might lead to behavioral changes. Both punishment and shaming of the affected child may deteriorate the situation further.
Sometimes rashes may appear at the bottom area of the child due to prolonged contact with urine.

As such the underlying causes of bedwetting are not clear. However several factors are known to play important roles. These are
1. Having a small bladder.
2. Inability to sense the fullness of the bladder and the need to evacuate it.
3. Hormonal problem: in many children during night time, the production of anti diuretic hormone (ADH) is inadequate, leading to production of large amount of dilute urine
4. Stress might trigger bedwetting. Stress in child can occur in various forms like school change, becoming brother or sister, attending new school, sleeping away from home in a new place etc
5. Urinary tract infection may lead to inability to control bladder activities with painful urination, passage of pink to frank red urine (passage of blood), painful urination, fever etc.
6. Diabetes: dryness during the day time and wetting only in the night might be the first symptom of diabetes in children.
7. Constipation: frequent episodes of irregular bowel movement may interfere with the ability of the bladder to hold urine.
8. Under rare circumstances may arise where, there might be structural problem in the nervous system or urogenital tract of the body which might lead to bedwetting
9. Genetic component: bedwetting in a child is strongly associated with bedwetting history of parents.
10. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: children with this disease are at increased risk of bedwetting.

President Obama announce $3 Billion for International Green Fund

President Barack Obama had promised a $3 billion U.S. contribution to the green climate fund, as an effort to help poor countries to deal successfully with the effects of climate change. The  announcement was expected to be done in the meeting of G-20 industrial nations in Australia.
The other countries joined U.S. are Mexico, South Korea, Germany, France, and Japan, in releasing the fund.This fund will be utilized with  for the privet sector investment, that will encourages world market to produce clean energy technology and creating opportunities for entrepreneurs and manufacturers including those from the United States

Mali confirms its second fatal case of Ebola virus disease

 Mali’s Ministry of Health has confirmed the country’s second fatal case of Ebola virus disease. The case occurred in a nurse who worked at a privately-run clinic in the capital city, Bamako.

The nurse, who was showing Ebola-like symptoms, was isolated on the evening of 10 November following suspicions of Ebola infection in a patient from Guinea who was treated at the clinic in late October. These suspicions were raised by an alert from health authorities in Guinea. The nurse died during the night of 11 November.

Testing was done at the biosafety level 3 laboratory in Bamako. In line with standard procedures, samples are being sent to a WHO-approved laboratory for confirmation and further virological analysis.

Private health centers bill is passed

A bill governing private health centers has been passed by the FNC, but not before it was stripped of proposed provisions on patients’ rights. The 29-article bill, which replaces a 1996 law, was sent to the council’s health committee a year ago for study. The committee assembled four times to discuss the law with Ministry of Health officials and the heads of private health centers. In its report, the committee said the law was critical in light of a study that found poor safety standards in some centers.
It said Seha, the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company, closed 11 centers and warned 13 others about standards. Among the complaints were endangering health, posing a threat to patient security and risk of spreading disease. The committee also claimed that some owners cared more about investing in hospitals and clinics for profit and had little concern for patient well-being. It criticized a shortage of up to 40 per cent in medical staff, with a heavy reliance on visiting doctors and sending patients abroad for treatment. But a list of patients’ rights added to the bill by the health committee was removed after a three-hour debate with the Minister of Health, Dr Abdul Rahman Al Owais.

Identified mutation of KCNB1 gene responsible for epilepsy

Scientists have identified a  mutation in the KCNB1 gene after mapping a DNA of a girl of 10 years old with Epileptic encephalopathy. Epileptic encephalopathy is a severe, rare and complex form of epilepsy that becomes evident in an early childhood and can lead to early death. This research finding has opened new treatment options for the young patient. Currently, the likely course of the disease  was grim and appeared hopeless when the patients were experiencing convulsive seizures.
The KCNB1 gene is responsible for  encoding the Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel. This channel affects cells communication with one another, by regulating the flow of potassium ions through neurons. This channel is also responsible in regulating potassium flow in the kidney, which maintains the potassium balance in the blood and excretion.
A research team was led by a group of scientists at the Scripps Translational Science Institute (STSI)The study was published in the October edition of medical journal Annals of Neurology.

Novel method to prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS with Anti-viral loaded Nanofiber

University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Pharmacy developed an anti-HIV drug loaded onto a mucoadhesive hyaluronic acid (HA) nanofiber delivery system. To address these issues, Bi-Botti Youan, Ph.D, one of the scientists in the team said that, this delivery system could potentially prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through the vaginal mucosa. The drug is release upon the exposure to semen fluid during sexual intercourse. The semen enzyme degrades the nanafiber and release the drug. Electrospinning method was used to load the antiviral drug. The cytotoxicity of the nanofibers on human vaginal cells and toxic effect on vaginal flora were also assessed. The efficacy of this drug delivery systems depends on the duration of the drug-containing formulation remains at the site of administration (ex. vagina, rectum). Youan said, this delivery system produces less discomfort and reducing the dosing frequency due to their prolonged retention at the target site. This research has opened a new opportunity in the field of vaginal drug delivery system.

Excessive guilt in young children leads to depression

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Reasons why tea is good for you

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New Method Of Treating Genetic Diorders -The Antisense Gene Therapy

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Myths and Fact of Sleep Apnea or otherwise called Snoring

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Why bedwetting occurs in childhood

Bedwetting or sleep wetting or nocturnal enuresis is defined as unintentional urination during sleep occurring after the age when bladder control is usually established. Bed wetting can be of two different types; primary and secondary.
In pr...
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A form of paralytic disease showing out in the form of food poisoning is Botulism. It is caused by Clostridium botulinum. The bacterium as such is noninvasive and noninfectious. It produces heat resistant spores which can withstand 100o...
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