Unrestricted marketing fails long efforts against youth smoking
Growing reports indicates that unrestricted marketing has its effects in increased number of young smokers in US. E-cigarette use is soaring among teenagers mainly because of advertisements aimed at their age group.
Seven out of 10 middle school and high school students say they have seen e-cigarette ads in stores, online or in other media, according to a new report from the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.
According to the "Vital Signs" report published online Jan. 5 in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, more than 13 percent of high school students were using e-cigarettes in 2014 -- more than the number smoking regular cigarettes, and up from 1.5 percent from three years earlier.
In middle schools, nearly 4 percent of students were using e-cigarettes by 2014. Meanwhile, spending on e-cigarette advertising jumped from $6.4 million in 2011 to about $115 million in 2014, the study authors noted.
The investigators found that about 69 percent of middle and high school students see e-cigarettes ads from one or more media sources. More than half see ads in retail stores, while about 40 percent see them online. About 36 percent see the ads on TV or at the movies, and around 30 percent spot them in newspapers and magazines.
Currently, e-cigarettes are not regulated in the United States, although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has said it intends to regulate them.
Obese kids may lower heart disease risk by going vegan
A new study has revealed that plant based vegetarian diet is effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in obese children. According to Cleveland Clinic research, obese children who begin a very low-fat, plant based vegetarian diet may have lesser chance of getting heart disease through variations in their weight, blood pressure, BMI, cholesterol levels, insulin sensitivity and high sensitivity C-reactive.
The four-week study compared a plant-based vegan diet to the American Heart Association (AHA) diet in 28 obese children with high cholesterol between the ages of 9 and 18. One parent of each child also followed the assigned diet plan.
Those on the plant-based diet consumed plants and whole grains, with limited avocado and nuts, no added fat, and no animal products and these children experienced significant improvements in nine measures: BMI, systolic blood pressure, weight, mid-arm circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and insulin, as well as two common markers of heart disease, myeloperoxidase and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Therefore plant based diets are said to be effective, if at all they are wisely used.
Those on American Heart Association diet, had more of vegetables, whole grains and non-whole grains, limited sodium, low-fat dairy, selected plant oils, lean meat and fish in moderation.
Antibiotics: the suicide bombs
Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the US. An antibiotic side (adverse) effect is an unwanted reaction that occurs in addition to the desirable therapeutic action of the antibiotic. When used appropriately, antibiotics are relatively safe with very few side effects. However, like any drug, antibiotic side effects can occur and may interfere with the patient’s ability to tolerate and finish the course of medication.
Antibiotic reactions can range from mild allergic reactions to severe and debilitating adverse events. Antibiotic side effects are extremely variable from patient to patient and from antibiotic to antibiotic.
If a patient is experiencing a bothersome or serious antibiotic side effect, they should contact their health care provider. The outcomes may include staying on the same antibiotic and managing the side effect, adjusting the dose, or switching to a different antibiotic. Usually, antibiotic treatment should not be stopped without a health care provider’s approval. Stopping the antibiotic may allow the infection to worsen and may lead to antibiotic resistance. Even if the infection appears to have cleared up before all of the medication is gone, the full course of antibiotic treatment should always be completed unless told otherwise by a health care provider.
An antibiotic allergy or hypersensitivity reaction can happen with any drug, and allergies are one of the most common antibiotic side effects leading to emergency room admission.1 Health care providers should always be informed of any previous allergic reaction to any medication, including antibiotics. Mild allergic reactions may only result in a skin rash. More severe allergic reactions, called anaphylaxis, can lead to shortness of breath, wheezing, hives, and swelling of the face, lips or tongue. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention.
Antibiotics are used to kill bacterial infections; they are not effective against viral infections, such as a cold or the flu, or against fungal infections, like ringworm or vaginal yeast infections. The most common antibiotic classes and drug members are listed in Table 1, along with the most commonly reported antibiotic side effects. This is not a complete list of all available antibiotics or side effects that may occur.
Gene decides why some kids turn into troubled adults
A recent study and research conducted at Duke University have identified a gene variant that may serve as a marker for children who are the most susceptible and vulnerable group of society. This study triggers an understanding in the biology of what makes a child sensitive to both positive and negative situations and environment.
"This gives us an important clue about some of the children who need help the most" said Dustin Albert, research scientist at the Duke University's Centre for Child and Family Policy. The study found that children from high-risk backgrounds who also carried a certain common gene variant were extremely likely to develop serious problems as adults left untreated, 75 percent with the gene variant developed psychological problems by age 25, including alcohol abuse, substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder
The picture changed dramatically, though, when children with the gene variant participated in an intensive program called the Fast Track Project
. After receiving support services in childhood, just 18 percent developed psychopathology as adults.
"It is a hopeful finding. The children we studied were very susceptible to stress. But far from being doomed, they were instead particularly responsive to help” Albert added. The findings could be a first step toward potential personalized treatments for some of society's most troubled children. The study appeared in the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.
Its official: Scratching does increase itchiness
A new research has cracked the answers to as why scratching makes one itch more and has observed that scratching causes the brain to release serotonin, which intensifies the itch sensation. The study conducted at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, showed that findings in mice are same vicious cycle of itching and scratching is thought to occur in humans.
Zhou-Feng Chen, PhD, director of Washington University's Center for the Study of Itch, said that the problem was that when the brain geot those pain signals, it responded by producing the neurotransmitter serotonin to help control that pain but as serotonin spreads from the brain into the spinal cord, they found the chemical could "jump the tracks" moving from pain-sensing neurons to nerve cells that influenced itch intensity.
The researchers bred a strain of mice that lacked the genes to make serotonin. When those genetically engineered mice were injected with a substance that normally makes the skin itch, the mice didn't scratch as much as their normal littermates but when the genetically altered mice were injected with serotonin, they scratched as mice would be expected to in response to compounds designed to induce itching.
Chen said that they always have wondered why this vicious itch-pain cycle occurs. Their findings suggest that the events happen in this order. First, one scratch, and that causes a sensation of pain then one make more serotonin to control the pain but serotonin does more than only inhibit pain.
The study is published in the journal Neuron.