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Autoimmune Dise...

The structural and functional damage produced by the action of antibodies against the normal comp...


Cholera is a dramatic and terrifying illness characterized by painless watery diarrhoea and copio...


Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries, chiefly of the inner lining (tunica intima) as...

Are you a Mindf...

Do you eat while feeling bored?

Do you sit and munch in front of your TV/Laptop?

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Treatment Options To Quit Smoking And Prevent Nicotine Dependence

Smoking is estimated to the most commonly preventable cause of death in the US. Stoppage of smoking leads to immediate benefit of health. For younger smokers quitting smoking leads to having normal life expectancy whereas for older people quality of life is improved along with along with addition of years to life.It is reported that the risk of several diseases drop immediately following giving up smoking. The risk of heart attack becomes 50% less in the first year of quitting smoking, in the second and third years of quitting smoking the risk of suffering from stroke becomes comparable to a non smoker and tenth year of smoking quitting the risk of suffering from cancer becomes half. There are several treatment options which help a smoker to give up smoking successfully. These options are usually the most helpful when used in combination.
The treatment options are
1. Drugs: these drugs include nicotine replacement therapy and non nicotine drugs. Both of these treatment options are approved by the FDA, USA. Pregnant, breastfeeding women, smokers less than 18 years etc should consult doctors before choosing the appropriate drugs,
    A.  Nicotine replacement therapy: in nicotine replacement therapy nicotine is advised to relieve the bothersome withdrawal symptoms. Unlike common belief  nicotine does not cause cancer. Nicotine supplements are given via various forms like nicotine patches, chewing gums, spray,inhalers etc.
        1.Nicotine patches are applied on the skin so that nicotine is delivered to the blood stream. The patch is replaced every day with a new one. The total duration of nicotine patch treatment is 8 weeks, if craving or the symptoms is not relieved despite treatment for two weeks or more doctor should be consulted regarding the dose of the nicotine in the patch or use of other addition al drugs.
        2.Nicotine chewing gums: these gums release nicotine in the oral cavity which enters the blood stream through the linings of the mouth. Drinking and eating should be avoided immediately after chewing the gums
        3.Nicotine lozenges act in the same way as the nicotine gums by releasing nicotine in the mouth and then reaching the blood stream
        4.Nicotine nasal spray and inhalers: these are prescription drugs which when sprayed or inhaled through the nostrils gets absorbed through the mucosal lining of the nose into the blood stream.
    B.  Non nicotine drugs: there are some drugs approved for use in nicotine dependence. These are
        1.Bupropion: this antidepressant drug raises the level of dopamine in the brain just like the nicotine and relieves the withdrawal symptoms. This drug is often prescribed along with nicotine patch. Bupropion also helps to lower the weight gain following quitting smoking. people with past history of seizure or severe degree of head injury should avoid this drug.
        2.Varenicline: this drug binds with nicotine receptor and thus relieves the withdrawal symptoms and also reduces the pleasant effects experienced with nicotine use.
        3.Nortriptyline: this antidepressant helps in nicotine withdrawal by lowering noradrenalin level in the brain

2. Counseling: often drugs are combined with counseling to get maximum benefit. Counseling options are
    a.  Telephone counseling
    b.  Group counseling
    c.  Individual counseling
    d.  Internet counseling
Use of certain products may help the person to avoid smoking, although scientific evidences regarding the usefulness of these products are not very strong. These products include certain herbs, supplements, nicotine lollipops, balms, hypnosis, electronic cigarettes etc.
Certain tips are helpful to refrain from smoking, these are
1. Motivating oneself all the time
2. Do not be discouraged if slip occurs
3. Identifying individual triggering factors for smoking and the challenges to remain tobacco free
4. Seek support whenever necessary
5. Practicing self talk
6. Regularly evaluating the benefits achieved from quitting smoking
7. Avoiding alcohol
Measures to prevent nicotine dependence
The best measure to prevent nicotine dependence is complete avoidance of smoking and other tobacco containing products.
As a parent or responsible citizen certain measures can be taken; these are
1) Promotion of smoke fee environments
2) Supporting laws which increases taxes on cigarettes and other tobacco containing products
3) Talking to teenagers regarding their ideas on smoking
4) Taking part in different community services which promote avoiding tobacco

Swine flu in India: 5 Facts you should know about the deadly virus

The overall number of death rates that has occurred due to swine flu has now surpassed 800 and 13,688 people have got affected many across India, here are top five facts that you really need to know about this deadly disease.

1. Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs. Usually the virus is spread only among pigs, but it has now become deadly for humans. Till now, the disease has claimed 812 lives across India in 2015.

2. Swine flu is highly contagious, spread quickly from person to person through air, mucus and saliva particles. One should cover the nose and mouth while coughing or sneezing because a simple cough or sneeze can spread thousands of germs through the air.

3. Symptoms of swine flu are similar to the symptoms of seasonal flu. Early symptoms include – cough, fever, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, chills, vomiting or diarrhoea. If a person develops one of these symptoms, he/she should immediately consult a doctor.

4. People who are at most risk include-children below three years of age, pregnant women, adults above 60 years of age, people with certain medical conditions such as heart disease, lung disease, asthma, diabetes or those with weakened immune systems.

5. Swine flu can be diagnosed only through test in a specialized laboratory by identifying the particular antigens associated with the virus type.

Soon, cancer cells detecting Endoscope to destroy tumors too

Scientists are working to upgrade the tool used to examine and detect cancer and other illnesses, called Endoscope, so that it can zap tumors as well.

The biomedical advancement, which is under development at the University at Buffalo, could make chemotherapy more efficient, reduce its side effects and improve how doctors treat some of the most deadly forms of cancer.

The new endoscope utilizes spatial frequency domain imaging. This new technique corrects the image contrast problem by projecting patterns of light at different frequencies on the cancer cells. This results in a high-contrast map of the tumor environment.

Chemotherapy drugs will be delivered intravenously. But unlike conventional treatment, the drugs will be encapsulated in tiny liposomes called nanoballoons. This technology carries the drugs to the tumor while shielding them from healthy cells, thus reducing side effects. Upon reaching the cancer cells, doctors strike the nanoballons with the endoscopic light beam, causing them to pop open and release the drug directly at the tumor.

To effectively target the nanoballoons, doctors need to control the light beam. Sunar is developing a "digital mask" that adjusts the beam's intensity as well as manipulates its shape down to micron (one millionth of a meter) precision using a computer.

Magnetic Stimulation can be used to boost memory

A study in Science suggests that elating a particular part of the brain with the help of electromagnetic pulses could exhilarate our ability to remember certain things for a longer duration of time.
The Us trials which comprised of 16 volunteers found that they have made 30% fewer mistakes in memory tests after undergoing the procedure.
Scientists are now working upon the techniques which could help people with memory loss and disorders and also helps reduce memory loss in later stage of life.

Treatment for ill health conditions such as stroke, early stage Alzheimer's disease, severe brain injury, cardiac arrest and other related memory problems that occur as your age advances or during the healthy aging time.
Memory functions of the brain in adults specifically changes at the initial stage, without conducting any major surgery or consuming drugs.

The study also demonstrates that in order to remember events, it requires a collaboration of many brain regions to function in concert with fundamental memory structure known as the hippocampus- which is similar to that of a symphony orchestra. The electrical stimulation is related to giving the brain regions a more efficient conductor so that they could play in a closer synchronization.

The whole of memory and cognition gets affected when the brain regions and hyppocampus are not in sync. Such a condition of the brain is called as schizophrenia.
The more those regions of the brain worked together due to the stimulation, the better people were able to learn new information.

Blood group linked to memory loss

American research suggests, that there are strong links between blood group and memory loss. People who have AB blood, found in almost 4% of the population. These individuals are more prone and likely to develop thinking and memory problems than those who belong to other blood groups. The study has also published that blood types would influence heart risk. The study also indicated that the best way to keep your brain healthy was to have a balanced diet along with regular exercise and to quit smoking.

People with AB blood type have a total of about 6% of the group who developed cognitive impairment and problems which shows to be 4% seen in general population.
Having blood group, such as O, may generate a much lower risk of having cardiovascular ailments, which in turn protected the brain cells, as per the study conducted by the researchers.

Though more of research and analysis is needed to confirm this fact, it is still believed through the study that 'blood type is also related to other vascular conditions like stroke.

Commenting on the study, Dr Simon Ridley, head of research at Alzheimer's Research UK, said the research did not look at risk of dementia, and it was too early to say whether AB blood group might be linked to a higher risk of the condition.
He also added that 'a healthy balanced diet, with proper work out and exercise.

One treatment for Ebola, Hepatitis, Brain Cancer and Influenza

A novel protein could be a universal therapeutic target for treating human diseases like brain cancer, Ebola, Influenza, Hepatitis and superbug bacteria, researchers report. By using a drug combination to target the key protein GRP78 and related proteins, researchers prevented the replication of a variety of major viruses in infected cells, made antibiotic-resistant bacteria vulnerable to common antibiotics and found evidence that brain cancer stem cells were killed.

Data were obtained in multiple brain cancer stem cell types, and using influenza, mumps, measles, rubella, adenovirus, coxsakie virus, chikungunya, Ebola, Hepatitis, E. coli, MRSA, MRSE and N gonorrhoeae, among others. “ We have got a concept that by attacking GRP78 and related proteins, we hurt cancer cells, we inhibit the ability of viruses to infect and to reproduce and we are able to kill superbug antibiotic-resistant bacteria”, said study’s lead investigator Paul Dent, professor in the department of biochemistry and molecular biology at Virginia Commonwealth University.

GRP78 is part of a family of proteins called chaperones. The job of a chaperone is to help shape chains of amino acids into proteins and then to keep those proteins active in the correct 3D shape. The chaperone proteins are very important in cancer cells or virus infected cells because these cells make extra protein compared to normal/uninfected cells. The findings open an avenue of being able to treat viral infections, infections that certainly most people would say we will never be able to treat.

Benefits of aloe vera for skin

Aloe vera apart from clearing blemishes off your face, takes care of other skin problems too. Here are a few to mention.

Aloe vera is rich in antibacterial properties which make it very effective in treating Read More

Factors to consider before hair colouring

If you are tired of having the same kind of hair, try something different like jazzing up your look by coloring your hair. Here are certain tips that you could follow in order to get that look:

1. First of all, consider the healt....Read More

Essential foods for working women

The nutrient requirements of working women is different than that of non-working women. They spend most of their time handling work at work place, with family, kids, travelling, meeting the deadlines etc. So eating well and maintaining a proper d....Read More

Super seeds with amazing benefits

We should include some super seeds in our diet in order to gain a healthy living. Sprinkle these seeds on your baked dishes and breakfast cereal for boosting up your health a bit more than normal. In the world of wellness, super seeds embody this t....Read More

Things to concern about dating

He is impolite to the subordinates or downs an excess of alcoholic beverages. She needs all the time to know where you are, or always make wait. Are these things simply irritating or may be the indications of relationship inconvenience ahead?
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Autoimmune Diseases - When antibodies fail to recognize its own constituent parts as self

The structural and functional damage produced by the action of antibodie...

Read more


Cholera is a dramatic and terrifying illness characterized by painless w...

Read more


Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries, chiefly of the inner l...

Read more

Are you a Mindful eater?

Do you eat while feeling bored?

Do you sit and munch in front...

Read more

Treatment Options To Quit Smoking And Prevent Nicotine Dependence

Smoking is estimated to the most commonly preventable cause of death in the US. Stoppage of smoking leads to immediate benefit of health. For younger smokers quitting smoking leads to having normal life expectancy whereas for older people quality ...
Read more

Being a Women

“Behind every successful man there is a woman”. Not only in the case of a man but this saying stands for the functioning of the whole world. She is said to be the ultimate strength and support behind the success of an individual. There...
Read more


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